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Research articles

ScienceAsia 44(2018): 67-73 |doi: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2018.44.067

Mouthpart deformities in non-biting midge larvae from a cadmium contaminated stream in Northern Thailand

Pimchanoke Weeraprapana, Somporn Chantaraa,b, Munetsugu Kawashimaa, Weerasak Roongruangwonga,c, Rungnapa Tagund, Chitchol Phalaraksha,c,*

ABSTRACT:     Deformities in the mouthparts of non-biting midge larvae, particularly in the teeth of the mentum, were studied in cadmium polluted areas in Mae Tao Stream, Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Northern Thailand. Non-biting midge larvae were sampled together with water and sediment from 4 study sites: sites MT1 and MT2 were upstream to a zinc mine and unpolluted by cadmium; sites MT3 and MT4 were downstream and polluted with cadmium. From the water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, and orthophosphate, the stream water quality was classified as moderately clean. The cadmium concentrations MT3 and MT4 exceeded the European maximum permissible level of 3.0 mg/kg for agricultural soil. A total of 3067 larvae and 21 taxa representing 3 subfamilies (Chironominae, Orthocladiinae, and Tanypodinae) from the four sampling sites were screened for mentum deformities. The results indicated that the deformity incidence of larvae was 5% at MT3 and MT4 and 0.20% at MT1 and 0.75% at MT2. Hence the mouthpart deformities of non-biting midge larvae could be potentially used as a bio-indicator for cadmium pollution.

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a Environmental Science Program, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Huay Kaew Road, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand
b Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Huay Kaew Road, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand
c Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Huay Kaew Road, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand
d Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Chang Phuak Road, Chiang Mai 50300 Thailand

* Corresponding author, E-mail: chitcholp@gmail.com

Received 20 Oct 2017, Accepted 31 Jan 2018