ScienceAsia 46 (2020): 650-656 |doi:
In vitro biological activities of clove essential oil
formulations against Microsporum gallinae ATCC
Jareerat Aiemsaarda,b,*, Chuchat Kamollerda, Prawit Butudoma, Kanlaya Worawonga,
ABSTRACT: Avian dermatophytosis is a disease caused by Microsporum gallinae. The disease can cause economic loss in
farmed chickens. We investigated the antifungal activity of clove essential oil (CO) against M. gallinae ATCC 90749. The
main components of CO were identified by GC-MS, eugenol (98.87%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.13%) were found.
The antioxidant activity of CO was determined by DPPH assay, the antioxidation index (AI) ranged from 86.55?0.77
to 92.37?0.25%, which was significantly higher than vitamin E and BHT (p < 0.05). The antifungal activity was
determined by broth microdilution method and time-kill kinetics assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of CO against M. gallinae were 0.005 and 0.01% v/v, respectively.
Time-kill assay showed that the antifungal activity of CO was dose and time-dependent. The time taken to reduce the
number of viable M. gallinae by more than 99.99% was 15 min and 3 h for 2 and 1% v/v CO, respectively. Ointments
and cream formulations containing CO were tested for antifungal activity using time-kill kinetics assay. Both the 2 and
4% w/w formulations of the CO ointments and creams reduced the number of viable M. gallinae by more than 99.999%
within 15 min. The results of this study show that CO has the potential to be developed as a drug for treating fungal
skin diseases in poultry. Further studies on the stability and efficacy of these CO formulations in vivo are needed.
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||Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 Thailand
||Biofilm Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 Thailand
* Corresponding author, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 10 Feb 2020, Accepted 11 Jul 2020