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Research articles

ScienceAsia 50 (2024):ID 2024051 1-8 |doi: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2024.051


Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics in waste and environment of small-scale swine farms


Supawadee Noinumsai, Pantip Klomjek, Kumrop Ratanasut, Charoon Sarin*

 
ABSTRACT:     This research aimed to investigate the occurrence of selected veterinary antibiotics in waste and environmental samples from 3 types of small-scale swine farms with different waste management systems in Northern Thailand comprising farms without waste treatment system, farms with a pond system, and farms with a biogas system. Flush water, fresh and dried feces, effluents, sludge, and soils were collected for an antibiotic analysis. Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) and ultrasonicated coupled with SPE were used for liquid and solid sample extraction. The target antibiotics were analyzed using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. In total, 19, 16, and 13 out of 21 target antibiotics belonging to 9 classes were found in flush water, fresh feces, and dried feces, respectively, in which the chlortetracycline was dominant in flush water (835.07?982.25 ?g/l), fresh feces (354.46?498.38 ?g/kg), and dried feces (95.05?154.94 ?g/kg). There were 17 and 16 antibiotics in effluents from pond and biogas systems, respectively, of which 13 and 12 antibiotics were in the sludge of each system. Moreover, chlortetracycline showed the highest concentrations in effluents (179.83?245.08 ?g/l) and sludge (80.84?104.83 ?g/kg) from both treatment systems. For soil receiving wastewater, chlortetracycline and enrofloxacin were detected while 11 and 12 antibiotics were found in soil amended with sludge from biogas and pond systems, respectively, with the highest concentrations of chlortetracycline. This research demonstrated that waste management and utilization in small-scale swine farms are important sources of antibiotic distribution and contamination in the environment. Therefore, appropriate waste management systems for small-scale swine farms should be considered.

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a Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 Thailand

* Corresponding author, E-mail: charoons@nu.ac.th

Received 3 Nov 2023, Accepted 25 Apr 2024