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Research articles

ScienceAsia 50 (2024):ID 2024027 1-12 |doi: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2024.027

Diversity and characterization of culturable fungi associated with Gnetum gnemon Linn. in organic and conventional farming systems and their potential antagonism against pathogenic fungi

Lakkhana Kanhayuwa Wingfield*, Yudawan Yungsatit, Ninadia Jitprasitporn, Sunisa Nikornsaen

ABSTRACT:     This study compared the diversity and abundance of culturable fungi associated with Gnetum gnemon Linn. grown in separate organic and conventional fields. A total of 236 fungi were isolated from leaves and soil, of which 124 were from organic fields and 112 were from conventional fields. The colonization rates of endophytic fungi ranged from 80% to 93%, and the mean fungal loads of soil fungi ranged from 4.45 ? 103 to 5.65 ? 103 CFU/g soil. Based on morphological characteristics and ITS sequence analysis, the isolates were identified to 13 orders and 24 genera. The most abundant endophytes were Colletotrichum, Guignardia, Daldinia, and Pestalotiopsis; and the most abundant soil fungi were Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Trichoderma. The fungal communities of G. gnemon were diverse and abundant, as indicated by the species richness and diversity indices. Among them, 23 taxa (55%) were common to both organic and conventional fields; however, the dominant endophytic and soil fungi were dissimilar. In antagonistic assays against the plant pathogenic fungi, Colletotrichum siamense, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Pestalotiopsis mangiferae, fungal isolates revealed inhibition percentages of 61% to 100%. Trichoderma hamatum C212, Gliocladium sp. C324, and Daldinia eschscholtzii LM12 showed the strongest antagonistic activities. Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Daldinia, Talaromyces, and Xylaria showed antimicrobial activities against Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Vibrio cholerae, and Candida albicans, with inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 22 mm. We demonstrated for the first time that endophytic and soil fungi associated with G. gnemon have potential as antagonists and antimicrobial agents for biotechnological applications.

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a Division of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110 Thailand

* Corresponding author, E-mail:

Received 3 Aug 2023, Accepted 23 Jan 2024