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Research articles

ScienceAsia 49S (2023):ID 89-98 |doi: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2023.s010

Green extraction of arabica coffee cherry husk using a deep eutectic solvent

Kanchana Watla-iada,b,c, Thitipone Suwunwonga,b, Patcharanan Chotoa,b,*

ABSTRACT:      Dried coffee cherry husk (DCCH) waste, obtained from arabica coffee processing, contains many valuable phytochemical substances. Extraction of phytochemicals causes value-addition to this waste. Organic solvent extraction is one of the most effective methods. However, the ?green chemistry? concept has been considered to reduce environmental contamination and chemical-related effects on human health. Natural deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used as an alternative solvent for the extraction of polyphenols from DCCH. In this work, the choline chloridecitric acid deep eutectic solvent (ChCA) was produced from 1:2 mole ratio of choline chloride (ChCl) to citric acid (CA) along with ultrasound-assisted extraction at 25 ?C for 60 min. The ratio of water combined with ChCA ranged from 20?50% w/w. Functional groups and viscosity of ChCA and ChCA mixed with water contents were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and viscosity analysis, respectively. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity (AA) of the DCCH crude extracts from DES were examined. Extraction using 40% w/w water/ChCA produced higher levels of TPC, TFC, and AA than other conditions at 27.00?1.18 mg GAE/g DCCH, 17.19?0.12 mg CE/g DCCH, and 11.24?0.32 mg AAE/g DCCH, respectively. The phytochemicals extracted from DCCH were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with the mass quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF) in positive and negative ionization modes. A total of 718 compounds significantly differed from other sample groups. The designed DES extraction can be successfully used to produce high-added-value phytochemicals from DCCH.

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a School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100 Thailand
b Center of Chemical Innovation for Sustainability (CIS), School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100 Thailand
c Coffee Quality Research Group (CQR), School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100 Thailand

* Corresponding author, E-mail:

Received 18 Jan 2023, Accepted 30 Sep 2023